i’m going to be interviewed and a guest DJ on Hobart Taylor’s KUCI radio show tomorrow from around 7-10am (the early bird gets the worm
here is the tentative playlist of the music i should be playing that represents some socal (-ish) music that is important to me.
- Overture from “The Little Prince”, Lloyd Rodgers (Cartesian Reunion Memorial Orchestra)
- Orlando, He Dead, Doug Hein (Cartesian Reunion Memorial Orchestra)
- The Swing, Lloyd Rodgers (Lloyd Rodgers Group)
- The Shade Never Was, Shane Cadman (The Illustrious Theatre Orchestra)
- Wheelbarrow Walk, Michael Nyman (Michael Nyman Band)
- Espresto, Jon Brenner
- The Black Book, 3/10/01, Lloyd Rodgers
- Liberation Technology, Killsonic Marching Group
- Wandermix, Bruce Hamilton
- Scale One, Paul Muller
- ImAngryandYoubeToo, Adam Kondor
- The Little Death: I Don’t Have any Fun, Matt Marks
- Madison Square, Mikel Rouse
- Music for Insomniacs, Shane Cadman
also here is a list of the track of mine i’ll probably play. i’ll add the links and some comments later (for all of the music on the page). in general much of this music can be found on the www.alt-classical.com or www.paulbailey.us websites right now.
Music from my latest Alt-Classical EP (2011)
- Life’s Too Short (Radio Edit) Graphic Libretto
- An Eye for Optical Theory (Nyman cover)
- Fearless Leader
Music from Summerland (2002)
- Obsessive Love
Retrace Our Steps (2008)
- Act 2 (texts by Jenny Bitner and Guy Debord) graphic libretto
Music for Controllers
- A Stable Job is an Oxymoron (2009)
These are my links for May 6th through May 10th: The first sign that humans are on the verge of evolving into another species [Evolution] – “What Carlson’s work suggests is that species whose brains are evolving fairly rapidly – hello, Homo sapiens – are likely candidates for speciation under the right circumstances. The key […]
What is Alt-Classical?
DIY, open instrumentation, alternative venues, mix of amateur and professional performers, music lies somewhere between art music (music meant to be contemplated) and pop music (music meant for mass consumption).
Alt Classical EP (2011) by pbailey
Fearless Leader, (2006, revised 2007)
was partially inspired by a quote from the Hungarian composer Gyorgy Ligeti: “ Now there is no taboo; everything is allowed. But one cannot simply go back to tonality, its just not the way. We must find a way of neither going back nor continuing the avant-garde. I am in a prison: one wall is the avant-garde, the other wall is the past, and I cannot escape.”
An Eye for Optical Theory (Michael Nyman Cover)
It is interesting to note that the although all of Nyman’s music from the Peter Greenaway film The Draughtsman’s Contract was derived from a Purcell chaconne, the ground bass (on which this piece is built) was subsequently discovered to have been written by a lesser-known contemporary of Purcell. This arrangement uses most of the melodic materials from the original piece, freely combining them to create a bizzaro world second cousin of the original.
Life’s Too Short (2006)
is a lighthearted meditation of life, death, and nihilism based on the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche (iconic German philosopher) and John Sinclair (Los Angeles based writer).
Cheap Admiration (2005)
Is loosely based on a harmonic deconstruction of Sonata Ciacona by Johann Pezel (1639-1694) who worked as a musician in Germany and was promoted to town stadtpfeifer (band director) in Leipzig in 1670. Later in his career he applied for and was turned down for the job of Cantor of St. Thomaskirche, a job that J.S. Bach would hold 50 years later.
myinnersatan (2005, revised 2006)
started as a cross between counterpoint exercise and a contemplation of the soul crushing emptiness of desk work.
Principal of Sufficient Irritation (originally titled 11/25/05)
is three sections of five melodic/ostinato gestures that can be performed in endless variety. in rehearsals a unique roadmap and orchestration is decided upon and explored during the performance. The title is based on an interesting concept in P.K. Dick’s “Ubik”.
Undone (The Sweater Song)
Weezer cover FTW!
Paul Bailey Ensemble (PBE)
is an alt-classical garage band that plays the music of a variety of living and dead composers. The group was created in 2002 as DIY forum outside the usual and limited channels of art music presentation.
released 16 February 2011
Paul Bailey, Trombone
Bruce Gallego, Electric Guitar
Eric Hendrickson, Keyboards
Scott McIntosh, Clarinet
Ryan Nunes, Vibraphone
Carl Stronach, Bass Guitar
With Special Guest Piano
John Marr on “Undone (The Sweater Song)”
Life’s Too Short Vocals
Nicole Baker, Mezzo Soprano, Spoken Word
Sean McDermott, Tenor
Paul Cummings, Bass
Recorded, Edited, and Mixed by Paul Bailey and Marlon Luna
Mixing and Mastering Consultant/Coach/Head Cheerleader Jon Brenner
Recorded at California State University Fullerton, Swing House Studios Hollywood, and Because They Are Dead Studios, Highland Park
a few weeks ago i thought i was actually done with the alt-c album. well… almost. i thought mixing was done and had a few tracks mastered and was feeling pretty good about the whole thing, that is before i started listening to the music on a variety of other sources (earbuds, car stereo, ipad […]
“This deal held until about thirty years ago, when for a variety of reasons, California voters realized that while they had done very well from the existing contract, they could do even better by walking away from their obligations and spending what they had inherited on themselves. “My kids are finished with school; why should […]
“What would a music experience designed specifically for the modern web look like? This is a question we’ve been playing around with for the last few months. Browsers and web technologies have advanced so rapidly in the last few years that powerful experiences tailored to each unique person in real-time are now a reality. Today […]
“And then it’s time for the Cosmic Flip concept that my long lost friend Heriberto was fond of discussing : maybe the lack of importance makes it super important. I won’t delve into this serious filosophizing, but it was something to that effect. In any case, I think I’ve done my small part in describing […]
this looks awesome. DIY + nerd science!
It’s Complicated David Souter finally tells Americans to grow up.
“Souter’s speech thus represents much more than an ode to a changing Constitution or a forceful admission that something that sounds suspiciously like “empathy” means that “judicial perception turns on the experience of the judges, and on their ability to think from a point of view different from their own.” Souter’s words even transcend his own high-minded call to “keep the constitutional promises the nation has made.” What Souter asked Americans to do in his Harvard speech is to live with ambiguity. To, in his words, acknowledge that there is a “basic human hunger for the certainty and control that the fair-reading model seems to promise,” while recognizing, in Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes‘ formulation, that “certainty generally is illusion and repose is not our destiny.” He is telling us to stop dreaming of oracular judges with perfect answers to simple constitutional questions. He is telling us, in other words, to grow up.”
“interestingly, they also find students whose professor had higher student evaluations typically did worse in subsequent courses. They attribute this to the “teaching to the test” that they think may go on in classes where professors have high student evaluations. Secondly, they find that students who took Calculus I from professors with lower student evaluations did better on subsequent courses. ”
“There’s a way of looking at the ugliness after Reconstruction–the rise of the Lost Cause, the Klan, the lynchings–as a tragic search for Southern white male identity. First the old slave patrols go. Then the Confederate Army is subdued and humiliated. Then blacks began to dominate “manly” athletic pursuits. Then Martin Luther King exposes the immorality of the Southern system. Reeling from “each successive volley, the Southern racist–and really any white racist–is left with a question: If the Southern white man is proven inferior physically, mentally, and even morally, than what is he?
HEY STOUFFERS! F$$K YOU IN YOUR F$$KING TOASTED A$$HOLE.
via . « Grocery Eats groceryeats.com post very NSFW (but very funny)
“We have three markets. There’s a commercial market, entirely determined by huge corporations whose sole interest is money. We’re never going to make a dent in that one. There’s an orchestra-music circuit that you have to enter young, and it’s all about who you know, and the music sucks. And there’s an academic market, which demands a healthy respect for the Schoenberg line and a suspicion against anything populist. I and my 400 closest friends don’t fit any of these markets.”
“Success Is Just Another Form of Failure” – PostClassic
“The artists, on the other hand, are at a permanent disadvantage. The most creative of them cannot present their work with the kind of empirical verifiability that translates as prestige going up the ladder – except by winning awards administrated by other universities. And those who aim for and achieve any kind of popular or commercial success virtually negate the explicit aims of the institution.”
A few bit.ly users who also heavily use Delicious and Twitter have asked for an easier way to sync all these services. We recently came up with a pretty good way to automate this sync process using Twitterfeed
“Derrick Hart is an American musician. You might know him from his “Songs From A Cross (The Sea)” EP on 12rec, a release in which Derrick shows great musical talent and a really fantastic sense for song-writing and melodies.
With his “fall asleep to this” EP he goes a more experimental and meditative way. The five tracks are mainly based on vocals, even though there are no actual lyrics. “kontakt” and “when someone loves you no more” are performed only with his voice, captured with a contact-mic, processed and converted. “when someone loves you no more” begins things with a profound wailing on behalf of anyone who has ever suffered before blooming into some incomprehensible sonic victory. “emporia”, “colors that surround you” and “kontakt” are beautiful melodic miniatures and “wilderness of the city” ends it all with strings and a relentless, hypnotic groove. But always is Derrick’s voice as the key element in each song, tying everything together.”
Bookmarks from January 5th through January 11th:[del.icio.us]
- Till we meet again, in some screening room in the dark. (15) – By Roger Ebert Slate Magazine -
“To be fair, James Cameron undoubtedly knows this about genetics. We already know how the female Na’vi evolved breasts. They evolved them on Cameron’s drawing board, because you can’t have a love affair between two Na’vi who are both breastless and therefore apparently male. The bloggers from the tinfoil-hat brigade would really go bonkers then. Roger”
- L.A. charter schools flex their educational muscles – latimes.com -
“Bauer, the Granada Hills principal who wanted the district “leveled,” said he actually sees that happening — but from inside, and by the district’s own choice. “I think the current centralized L.A. Unified structure is being leveled by the superintendent and board,” he said. “I think the climate has changed a lot,” said Jennifer Epps, principal of , a high-performing elementary school in Historic South-Central. “I think that just overall, they’ve been realizing that what they’re doing isn’t necessarily right for every school . . . and they’re saying, ‘We don’t have the resources to change these schools fast enough. . . . We need other solutions.’ “
- Quotes on music -
“To those composers who use MIDI and drum machines: Keep using them! Realizing your scores via MIDI is not inherently better or worse than hearing them in your head. If you haven’t already, you will eventually figure out how to make your MIDI devices do things no one ever thought they would do! And then you might learn how to hear those kinds of things in your head, something that [the conductor] Dennis Russell Davies will never be able to do.” — Corey Dargel
- The Founders Of Computer / Electronic Music | soundseller BLOG -
“Six world-renowned pioneers of computer and electronic music gather at Tulane University to discuss the future of the form – both as they saw it in 1967 and as they see it today…”
- Dave Winer: “I’m a mystic about What It All Means.” -
“…Dave Winer’s writings make you “think.” What does this really mean? The best response comes from Winer himself in a remarkable note about Julia Child, whom he views as a “natural-born blogger,” even though she wrote before the blogging era: [snip]. A blogger is someone who takes matters into his or her own hands. Someone who sees a problem that no one is trying to solve, one that desperately needs solving, that begs to be solved, and because the tools are so inexpensive that they no longer present a barrier, they are available to the heroic individual. As far as I can tell, Julia Child was just such a person. Blogging software didn’t exist when she was pioneering, but it seems that if it did she would have used it.” In the same piece, he also mentions that “The story of the nobility of blogging largely remains, imho, untold,”
- Hello… I Must Be Going-allaboutjazz.com -
“You are all the victims of Big Lies, conceived by Big Liars and spread by small-time hustlers, self-seeking weasels, Kulchur pimps and self-loathing whores – with a little too much help from some truly dedicated and optimistic individuals who are simply unable to see the forest for the trees. Combine this with those most willing victims – the musicians, who insist upon remaining slaves, shackled by their comfortable ignorance, short-sightedness and willingness to plant their silent lips upon the glutes of anybody who can offer them the luxury of allowing them to work for chump change – and you have got the ideal formula for destruction.”
- 20 years goes by so quickly – NetNewMusic -
“As in Dan Stearns recent Trolley video, this video is music from twenty years ago from a group I was in called the Glue Factory Orchestra in one of our first, if not our first show. The auspicious title of “no name” goes with this tune. As you can tell, the video and audio aren’t the best, but the club Beneath Broadway was a great place to play and to see music and theatre and this reminds me of those days. GFO was: Tony Atherton (alto sax), Diane Barkauskas (keyboard, accordion), Dave Black (amplified string bass), Joe Bouchard (Guitar), Jeff Fairbanks (drums, marimba), Martin Tardif (electric bass), and Jerry Wheeler (trombone). Tune by Jeff Fairbanks”
an experiment in narrowcasting and curation of the independent DIY music community
as some of you may know i have been kicking around the idea of creating a new website to feature music from our community (independent DIY art music). my original idea centered around the observations of how various website in the community functioned.
originally there was Sequenza 21 which like a new music magazine functioned as good watercooler to discuss whatever articles and music being promoted. then there was Net New Music; which has been very interesting community fourm/clubhouse (on most days) for the new music community. both of these sites have specific purposes, but neither functions well as a music publishing and aggregation platform. after thinking about this quite a bit and surveying many of the platforms available and as an experiment i decided to try and create a website that focuses on curating and aggregating this music ourselves
i was very surprised to get a mention in the new yorker online, so if you haven’t visited her before let me please introduce myself: although i’m a “blogging composer” it’s probably easier to keep up with our bigger conversation with other wide range of very interesting and uniquely individual composers that i follow on […]
A.M. updates her original post and expands her confusing alt-classical umbrella to include most everybody
anne can call it whatever she wants, but the commissioned, academic music they have to play is always going to be toothless and banal.
the big problem about article’s like this is that it promises the moon (yet again), and pulls out the rug on the those more adventurous early adopters who pay decent money to catch “the new music scene” which in turn makes it harder for me to get people to come out to my shows.
just to be clear i’m not saying the groups mentioned in these articles are poor performers or all the music the play is shite, but i’m very clearly pointing out at any one of their concerts you do have to suffer through at least 1-2 commissioned pieces they must play to “pay the bills” and keep the grants coming in. the audience has no idea that this pay to play is going on (it’s just like selling prime shelf space at the supermarket to the highest bidder) and yet comes away from the whole experience wondering if they must be stupid b/c they “didn’t quite understand the music”
on the other hand…
thank goodness most kids today don’t read the paper
after reading anne midgette’s washington post article Roll Over Beethoven about her new “alt-classical” genre i have a few bones to pick with with her description and logic.* besides mixing up the alt.classical genre with the alt.classical transcription bandwagon. (Alarm Will Sound’s Aphex Twin transcriptions and Christopher O’Riley’s Radiohead piano music) she tries then label […]
‘m really happy to finally release the first track from my upcoming PBE EP “Alt-Classical”
Cheap Admiration (2005), is a simple pop song (loosely based on a harmonic deconstruction) of Johann Pezel’s (1639-1694) Sonata Ciacona.
Around 1670 Pezel was the town stadtpfeifer (band director) in Leipzig and later in his career he applied and was turned down for the job of Cantor of St. Thomaskirche, a job that J.S. Bach would hold 50 years later.
DIY, open instrumentation, alternative venues, mix of amateur and professional performers, music lies somewhere between art music (music meant to be contemplated) and pop music (music meant for mass consumption).
Alt-Classical is the third CD/EP release from the Paul Bailey Ensemble
Paul Bailey Ensemble (PBE)
The Paul Bailey Ensemble (PBE) is an alt-classical garage band that plays the music of a variety of living and dead composers. The southern california group was created in 2002 as a DIY forum outside the usual and limited channels of art music presentation.
- Paul Bailey, Trombone
- Bruce Gallego, Electric Guitar
- Eric Hendrickson, Keyboards
- Scott McIntosh, Clarinet
- Ryan Nunes, Vibraphone
- Carl Stronach, Bass Guitar
Bookmarks from July 3rd through July 5th:[del.icio.us]
- Daily Kos: Scientists Visit the Creation Museum – “Tamaki Sato was confused by the dinosaur exhibit. The placards described the various dinosaurs as originating from different geological periods — the stegosaurus from the Upper Jurassic, the heterodontosaurus from the Lower Jurassic, the velociraptor from the Upper Cretaceous — yet in each case, the date of demise was the same: around 2348 B.C. “I was just curious why,” said Dr. Sato, a professor of geology from Tokyo Gakugei University in Japan” Poor Dr. Sato. Has he never read the Bible? Doesn’t he know that 2348 BC was the year of the Great Flood?
- Wonkette : Insane Sarah Palin, Late At Night On July 4, Threatens To Sue Entire Internet, Via Twitter – he he she said snowbilly grifter. “Sarah Palin, a snowbilly grifter who spent her entire adult life desperately trying to become a Public Figure, apparently wants her attorneys to stupidly and pointlessly threaten American practitioners of free speech regarding our public figures and elected officials.”
- musoc.org home: music, society, music society -interesting un-authored site that tries to push an unique “art music” worldview. right now the general consensus is that its a parody (at NNM)
- 1. define all music in only two categories; pop and art (really no folk music?)
- 2. has a hall of shame for the “individuals and institutions who debase art music” (why not in good fun?)
- 3. have a set of criteria for all art music (there definition of art music is ambitious but fatally flawed, they trip themselves up in the complexity argument, also by giving any music/idea a fixed criteria pretty much makes it dead on the spot to be dissected in a vacuum sealed bell jar and not a living breathing ‘art’ form)
- 4. have a list of ‘approved’ art music (not a bad idea, but looking at their list makes me confident i wouldn’t ever want to be a member of their ‘club’)
- 5. have a list of neglected classics (see #4)
- 6. have a mailing list (why not… it would be interesting to see what they think)
- ‘Freebird’ ultimately unforgettable — chicagotribune.com -Lynyrd Skynyrd released the song 35 years ago. Since then, it has been an anthem, a demand, an ode to personal independence and the lamest heckle in the history of rock.
- Feed Us A Live Insect: I will always love you Mr. T’s-Bowl – great post (by eli of the monolators) on the ups and downs on my favorite venue to play in Los Angeles.
- This Is Why You’re Fat and other great single-topic blogs. – By Farhad Manjoo – Slate Magazine -
The allure of crowd-sourced, single-topic blogs.
- The BRAD BLOG : EXCLUSIVE: PALIN RESIGNATION ‘DAMAGE CONTROL’ FOR COMING ‘ICEBERG SCANDAL’ … MORE: EMBEZZLEMENT INDICTMENTS COMING? -since i posted this the FBI has come out to say that there is no truth to the online rumors. after seeing the press conference i still think she was out of her mind scared and quit for a pretty good reason. only time will tell.
- YouTube – Music plays with the listener -interesting youtube video on music cognition (via @laputean)
- Poisson Rouge’s sense of musical adventure | Culture Monster | Los Angeles Times -Marc Swed checks out the poisson rouge in NYC. “The place isn’t merely cool, as the New York Times has dubbed it, the venue is a downright musical marvel. I wasn’t miserable on Monday, which I might have been with this program. Instead, I found the evening such a pleasure that I hope there is room on the crowded Poisson Rouge bandwagon for yet another critic.”
Bookmarks from June 26th through June 29th:[del.icio.us]
- Los Angeles New Music Ensemble – looks like there is a new music group in town. welcome aboard! “The Los Angeles New Music Ensemble (LANME) is an organization created to promote new music, collaboration within the arts, the commissioning of new works, and the creation of multimedia presentations within innovative live performances. To further these goals, LANME is dedicated to learning and playing the best and most exciting new chamber music around.”
- New school board members ready for challenge – LA Daily News -former John Marshall High School colleague Steve Zimmer is interviewed as he prepares to become a school board member. “Zimmer admits that scarier than dealing with a billion-dollar deficit is the idea of not being on the campus of Marshall every day. It will be interesting to see if someone immersed on the ground level can translate that experience to doing a good job on the board,” Zimmer said.” As a teacher, Zimmer has also been a very active member of United Teachers Los Angeles, which has prompted some to believe his vote will always follow the powerful union’s stance. I don’t accept that voting on the side of the union is siding against students,” he said “
- laboratory tests of vegan restaurants in la | vegan food and living in Los Angeles -
very interesting blog post that tests a number of LA restaurants to see if their food was really vegan. (fyi: i’m not and my wife is a pescatarian) although there were some meals that were obviously misrepresented as vegan, it seems the biggest culprit might be the mislabeling and mistranslation of food from the taiwan to us markets.
- A Chapter from The Listen: Music for 18 Musicians – these excerpts are being touted as a new type of music criticism and a new way to attract audiences. i hate to throw a bucket of cold water on these ambitious young writer/composers, but the excerpts are overwritten and seem musically naive, trying to impress a faculty advisor in grad school. hence exhibit A and B: “
- And now melody. And now melodies. The melodies here being the playings-out of the harmonies. The harmonies being the on-ringing of all the melodic notes” “
- The harmonies are one harmony that absorbs the up-till-now waves of the other harmonies, that absorbs the leftover pulses. This accumulated on-ringing describes a recognizable environment… —a single addition to the bottom of the harmony—acts as a diaphragm, allowing this environment to open and to breathe in”
- this play by play description doesn’t work for me and its certainly not the way i would want people to read about my music. i think a better tack would be to try and distill what makes these pieces great.
- You balance the budget – Los Angeles Times -Try your hand at closing California’s budget shortfall, estimated at $24 billion. It’s not easy, but it can be done. Cut spending, raise taxes and/or borrow to get the state out of the red. For each choice — drawn from proposals from across the political spectrum — we’ve tried to give some sense of the effects. As you craft your proposal, the Deficit Meter will show your progress.
- The tragic end of Michael Jackson: The Jeruselum Post – very tragic michael jackson quote that is further proof that fame is not a replacement for love “I am going to say something I have never said before and this is the truth. I have no reason to lie to you and God knows I am telling the truth. I think all my success and fame, and I have wanted it, I have wanted it because I wanted to be loved. That’s all. That’s the real truth. I wanted people to love me, truly love me, because I never really felt loved. I said I know I have an ability. Maybe if I sharpened my craft, maybe people will love me more. I just wanted to be loved, because I think it is very important to be loved and to tell people that you love them and to look in their eyes and say it.”
- I’m in a band… -via S21, i’m glad to see other composer/performers starting their own groups
- Just Released: “New World Ardor”- NetNewMusic – willam houston’s new (and very enjoyable) post-apocalypse party music. reminds me of john oswald’s ‘plunderphonics’
for me summertime is the only of the year to time to catch up on some projects and get a little housecleaning done (professionally and personally). after a relaxing camping trip in catalina (hiking around two harbors was great!) i finally started going through my many “summer todo” lists that i made throughout the year. for whatever reason i always feel that i have to have “something tangible” completed by the 4th of july. so here is my list:
- unfortunately this website had to be burned to the ground and reinstalled. for some reason my template stopped working and it took me a while to figure out how reinstall from scratch. luckily it wasn’t as hard as i thought (thanks @vansgirl12)
- also most of this site should be quite useful now. scores (.pdf, .mus (finale), and .mid) to most of my music is now available through creative commons. all that means to me is that you can use it however you want; as long as you attribute me, and the work is not for resale.
- i started mixing the ‘alt-classical’ CD/EP again. i have to admit that doing all of the recording and editing alone (mostly) is too much of a narcissistic experience for me. eventually i’d really like to be able to hire somebody to do it, but until that day comes i have to get some distance and be able to disassociate myself from the music i wrote and we (the pbe performed). the good news is that 2 years after the fact (recording) i can now listen to that music and enjoy it (i totally understand why some actors can’t see themselves on film). currently i’m pretty close to finishing 3 tracks (principle of sufficient irritation, cheap admiration, myinnnersatan), and i’m thinking of downsizing it into an EP just to get it done. at this point i can only anticipate more problems getting clearance to release my covers of Weezer’s Sweater Song and Radiohead’s National Anthem.
- and finally, it was great to get an email (thanks caryn!) that a few weeks ago the PBE’s 1st album “Music from Summerland” was featured on John Schaefer’s New Sounds (WNYC) radio show “The Pulse of Minimalism, 060909” podcast download. its our 2nd featured spot on the show and i’m really ectastic to have interest in my “back catalog”. along those lines i have made the 7 summerland mp3′s freely available to download. enjoy! (i also learned a great lesson about making a special page for “press photos” so gig photos like this never see the light of day again)
like i said in some previous posts its hard not having a group to write or perform with right now, but mixing is keeping me plenty busy and if things go well i’m also hoping to get in the studio to record my Requiem for a High Homicide Enclave (2008)
this year has also been a pretty big change for me personally. last fall (for a variety of reasons) it was in my best interest to put the pbe on indefinite hiatus. the simple answer is that i wasn’t interested in the long rebuilding process after carl stronach (nyc in 2007) and bruce gallego (stockton […]